Ageism also spelled " agism " is stereotyping of and discrimination against individuals or groups on the basis of their age. This may be casual or systematic. Among them were prejudicial attitudes towards older people, old age, and the aging process ; discriminatory practices against older people; and institutional practices and policies that perpetuate stereotypes about elderly people.
While the term is also used in regards to prejudice "American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers" discrimination against adolescents and childrensuch as denying them certain rights i.
Older people themselves can be deeply ageist, having internalized American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers lifetime of negative stereotypes about aging. It can also be passive and covert e. Ageism in common parlance and age studies usually refers to negative discriminatory practices against old people, people in their middle years, teenagers and children.
There are several forms of age-related bias. Adultism is a predisposition towards adults, which is seen as biased against children, youth, and all young people who are not addressed or viewed as adults. Adultcentricism is the "exaggerated egocentrism of adults.
This definition constitutes the foundation for higher reliability and validity in future research about ageism and its complexity offers a new way of systemizing theories on ageism: Other conditions of fear or aversion associated with age groups have their own names, particularly: Implicit ageism is the term used to refer to the implicit or subconscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors one has about older or younger people.
These may be a mixture of positive and negative thoughts and feelings, but gerontologist Becca Levy reports that they "tend to be mostly negative. Stereotyping is a tool of cognition which involves categorizing into groups and attributing characteristics to these groups.
Stereotypes are necessary for processing huge American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers of information which would otherwise overload a person and are generally accurate descriptors of group characteristics, though some stereotypes are inaccurate.
For example, age-based stereotypes prime one to draw very different conclusions when one sees an older and a younger adult with, say, back pain or a limp. One might well assume that the younger person's condition is temporary and treatable, following an accident, while the older person's condition is chronic and less susceptible to intervention. On average, this might be true, but plenty of older people have accidents and recover quickly and very young people such as infants, toddlers and small children can become permanently disabled in the same situation.
This assumption may have no consequence if one makes it in the blink of an eye as one is passing someone in the street, but if it is held by a "American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers" professional offering treatment or managers thinking about occupational health, it could inappropriately influence their actions and lead to age-related discrimination.
Managers have been accused, by Erdman Palmore, as stereotyping older workers as being resistant to change, not creative, cautious, slow to make judgments, lower in physical capacity, uninterested in technological change, and difficult to train.
A review of the research literature related to age stereotypes in the workplace was recently published in the Journal of Management. Contrary to common and more obvious forms of stereotyping, such as racism and sexism, ageism is more resistant to change. For instance, if a child believes in an ageist idea against the elderly, fewer people correct them, and, as a result, individuals grow up believing in ageist ideas, even elders themselves.
Ageist beliefs against the elderly are commonplace in today's society. For example, an older person who forgets something could be quick to call it a "senior moment," failing to realize the ageism of that statement. People also often utter ageist phrases such as "dirty old man" or "second childhood," and elders sometimes miss the ageist undertones. In a classic study, researchers analyzed the effects of ageism among the elderly.
In the three groups, the Chinese residents were presumably the least exposed to ageism, with lifelong experience in a culture that traditionally venerates older generations. Lifelong deaf North Americans also faced less exposure to ageism in contrast to those with typical hearing, who presumably had heard ageist comments their whole life.
The results of the memory tests showed that ageism has significant effects on memory. The gap in the scores between the young and old North Americans with normal hearing were double those of the deaf North Americans and five times wider than those of the Chinese participants. The results show that ageism undermines ability through its self-fulfilling nature. On the other hand, when elders show larger independence and control in their lives, defying ageist assumptions, they are more likely to be healthier, both mentally and physically, than "American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers" people their age.
Research indicates that older people are stereotyped as scoring lower on measures of impulsivity, activism, antagonism and openness while younger people are stereotyped as scoring higher on these measures. This was found to be universal across cultures and was also found to be reasonably accurate varying depending on how the accuracy was assessed and the type of stereotypethough differences were consistently exaggerated.
Ageist prejudice is American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers type of emotion which is often linked to the cognitive process of stereotyping. It can involve the expression of derogatory attitudes, which may then lead to the use of discriminatory behavior. Where older or younger contestants were rejected in the belief that they were poor performers, this could well be the result of stereotyping.
But older people were also voted for on a stage in a game where it made sense to target the best performers. This can only be explained by a subconscious emotional reaction to older people; in this case, the prejudice took the form of distaste and a desire to exclude oneself from the company of older people.
American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers prejudice against different groups in society does not take the same form. Age-based prejudice and stereotyping usually involves older or younger people being pitied, marginalized, or patronized. This is described as " benevolent prejudice" because the tendency to pity is linked to seeing older or younger people as "friendly" but "incompetent.
The figure for friendliness of unders is, conversely, an example of Hostile Prejudice. Hostile prejudice based on hatred, fear, aversion, or threat often characterizes attitudes linked to race, religion, disability, and sex.
An example of hostile prejudice toward youth is the presumption without any evidence that a given crime was committed by a young person. Rhetoric regarding intergenerational competition can be motivated by politics. Violence against vulnerable older people can be motivated by subconscious hostility or fear; within families, this involves impatience and lack of understanding. Equality campaigners are often wary of drawing comparisons between different forms of inequality.
The impact of "benevolent" and "hostile" prejudice tends to be different. The warmth felt towards older or younger people and the knowledge that many have no access to paid employment means there is often public acceptance that they are deserving of preferential treatment—for example, less expensive movie and bus fares. But the perception of incompetence means older and younger people can be seen as "not up to the job" or "a menace on the roads," when there is little or exaggerated evidence to support this.
Prejudice also leads to assumptions that it is "natural" for older or younger people to have lower expectations, reduced choice and control, and less account taken of their views. Digital ageism refers to the prejudices faced by older adults "American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers" the digital world. A few examples of the subtle ways in which digital ageism operates in cultural representations, research, and everyday life: Generational segregation naturalizes youth as digitally adept and the old as digital dunces.
There is no empirical evidence, though, for a digital divide between older and younger people, with the former never and the latter always capable to use digital media; a far more accurate description is that of a digital spectrum.
The term visual ageism was coined in by Loos and Ivan. A review of empirical studies conducted since in Europe and North America  reveals that print and television advertisements started this transition towards a more positive visual representation of older adults in their age during the last decade of the 20th century, followed by television programs some years later, while older adults in their fourth age remain invisible. This is probably due to the increase in third age rhetoric in the media, picturing older people as healthy and as potential consumers, enjoying life and living their golden years.
Media representations American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers older people have moved from visual under- and misrepresentation negative images     to more positive depictions    These days, visual ageism in the media tends to come wrapped in the guise of the positive attributes of third age representations of older people, while adults in their fourth age continue to be underrepresented. One possible explanation for this is that healthy third agers might prefer not to be associated with fourth agers, as they remind them too starkly of what lies ahead in their own near future.
Although this discomfort or even fear about mortality is undeniably common, from a societal point of view this kind of self ageism is hurtful to fourth agers as a group and in a sense to third agers as well, as they risk to become fourth agers themselves one day. Age discrimination is the result of actions taken to deny or limit opportunities to people on the basis of age. These are usually actions taken as a result of one's ageist beliefs and attitudes. Age discrimination occurs on both a personal and institutional level.
On a personal level, an older person may be told that he or she is too old to engage in certain physical activities, like an informal game of basketball between friends and family. A younger person may be told they are too young to get a job or help move the dining room table.
On an institutional level, there are policies and regulations in place that limit opportunities to people of certain ages and deny them to all others. The law, for instance, requires that all people must be at least 16 years old in order to obtain a driver's license in the United States. There are also government regulations that determine when a worker may retire. Ageism has significant effects in two particular sectors: Age discrimination has contributed to disparities in health between men and women.
Reducing ageism and sexism would promote improved doctor-patient relationships and reduce ageist stereotypes in the healthcare industry. The concept of ageism was originally developed to refer to prejudice and discrimination against older people and middle American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers, but has expanded to include children and teenagers.
Unlike racial and gender discrimination, however, American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers discrimination in wages is often enshrined in law. For example, in both the United States  and the American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers Kingdom  minimum wage laws allow for employers to pay lower wages to young workers.
Many state and local minimum wage laws mirror such an age-based, tiered minimum wage. As well, the Fair Labor Standards Act of was amended in to allow the United States Secretary of Labor to provide special certificates to allow an employer to pay less than the minimum wage to individuals whose earning or productive capacity is impaired by age, physical or mental deficiency, or injury.
The age-wage peak in the United American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers, according to Census data, is between 45 and 54 years of age. Seniority in general accords with respect as people age, lessening ageism.
Statistical discrimination refers to limiting the employment American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers of an individual based on stereotypes of a group to which the person belongs.
Limited employment opportunities could come in the form of lower pay for equal work or jobs with little social mobility. Younger female workers were historically discriminated against, in comparison with younger men, because it was expected that, as young women of childbearing years, they would need to leave the work force permanently or periodically to have children.
In the United States, a person must generally be at least 14 years old to seek a job, and workers face additional "American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers" on their work activities until they reach age While older workers benefit more often from higher wages than do younger workers, they face barriers in promotions and hiring.
Employers also encourage early retirement or layoffs disproportionately more for older or more experienced workers. Some political offices have qualifications that discriminate on the basis of age as a proxy for experience, education, or accumulated wisdom. For example, the President of the United States must be at least 35 years old; a United States Senator must be at least 30; and a United States Congress member must be at least In the UK, age discrimination against older people has been prohibited in employment since Since then, the number of age discrimination cases rose dramatically.
The laws protect anyone over the age of 16 who is young as well as old. Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 's first complainants were female flight attendants complaining of among other things age discrimination. They are also paid a lower minimum wage and not allowed to work full-time. This is a higher proportion than for gender or racial discrimination. Dominic Abramssocial psychology professor at the university, concluded that Ageism is the most pervasive form of prejudice experienced in the UK population. In Belgium, they are only discriminated if they have more years of inactivity or American texas intergenerational dating definition synonyms from answers employment.
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